Sikh Rehat Meryada
Charnjit Singh Bal
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The real Sikh Creed of Conventions and code of Conduct or Sikh Rehat-meryada is derived from Gurbani of Guru Granth Sahib, co-authored by the venerable Sikh Gurus and eminent Hindu and revered Muslim sages. The intelligent study and interpretation of Gurbani of Guru Granth Sahib reveals the noble virtues a Sikh ought to cultivate and the evil vices he ought to relinquish to live a true Sikh Way of life i.e. a pious, moral, altruistic, humane and harmonious societal family life.
Sikh Rehit Meriyada
Sikh Rehit Meryada literally means Sikh Creed of Conventions and Code that was constituted in the early part of 20th century by an adhoc committee set up by the Shromani Gurdwara Perbandhak Committee (S. G. P. C). The committee consisted of Sikh leaders, scholars, academics, preachers, Sants, Pundits and a Shastri (Hindu Shastras' scholar) from Herdwar.
Soon after the inception of S. G. P. C. on 15 December 1920, in its general meeting on March 15, 1927, the following proposal, put forward by Akal Takht Jathedar Teja Singh and seconded by S. Ravale Singh, was passed unanimously to constitute a standardized Sikh creed and code of conduct.
'For many reasons, contradictions regarding Sikh creed and code of conduct have cropped up and are growing. Therefore to prepare a draft of the creed of conventions as per Guru's edification, a sub-committee of the following Sikh scholars and prominent Sikhs should be formed.'
(1) Prof. Teja Singh, Khalsa. College Asr. (2) Prof. Jodh Singh, Khalsa. College Asr.
(3) G. Thaaker Singh, Asr. (4) G. Sher Singh (5) G. Sunder Singh Bhindran
(6) Bhai Budh Singh, Amritsar (7) Akali Kaur Singh Amritsar
(8) Sant Sangut Singh Komalia.(9) Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha
(10) Sant. Gulab Singh Gholian Moga (11) Bh labh Singh Granthi Derbar Sahib
(12) Bh Hazoora Singh Hazoor Sahib (13) Pundit Basant Singh Patiala
(14) Bh. Veer Singh Amritsar (15) Babu Teja Singh Punch Khand Bhasaud
(16) G. Heera Singh Derd Amritssr (17) Bh. lall Singh Kakkar Bahadur Amritsar
(18) Bawa Herkishun Singh Gujranwala (19) Bh. Trilochan Singh SurSingh
(20) G. Hamir Singh Asr. (21) Pundit Kartar Singh Dakha
(22) Prof. Gunga Singh Philosopher (23) Bh. Mya Singh Lahore
(24) Sant Maan Singh Shastri Kankhal Herdwar
(25) Bh. Teja Singh Akal Takht Jathedar (26-28) Jathedars of other three Takhts
Convened by Prof. Teja Singh, Khalsa College Amritsar, the Sikh Rouh-Reet (Sikh Creed of Conventions) Sub-Committee, met on 4th & 5 th October 1931, 3rd and 31st January 1932. Some of the names mentioned above do not appear in list of those who attended the meetings. Other prominent Sikh leaders who attended these meetings occasionally were;
S. Dharm-Anunt Singh Principle Sikh Missionary college, S. Bhag Singh Lawyer Gurdaspur, S. Wasawa Singh S. G. P. C. Sec., Master Tara Singh Akali Dal President etc.
On 8th may 1932 discussions were held to reconsider the draft of the Sikh Creed of Conventions and Code of Conduct as directed by the S. G. P. C. The following members were present.
(1) Jathedar Teja Singh (2) Sant Teja Singh Granthi Nankana Sahib
(3) G. Gurmukh Singh Musaafer (4) G. Nahar Singh
(5) S. Wasawa Singh Sec. S. G. P. C. (6) S. Waryam Singh Nankana Sahib
(7) Jathedar Mohan Singh Akal Takht Sahib (8) Bh. Pertap Singh Pustkan-waalay
(9) Bh. Kertar Singh Jhabber (10) S. Lall Sigh S. G. P. C. etc.
Because of strong demand from many people to amend the draft another meeting was held on 26th September 1932 to reconsider the draft. The following members were present.
(1) Prof. Teja Singh Convener (2) G. Sher Singh (3) G. Thaaker Singh
(4) G. Hameer Singh (5) Jathedar Teja Singh. (6) G. Naaher Singh
(7) G. Gurmukh Singh Musafer (8) Bh. Joginder Singh Vice Jath. Kesgarh Sahib
(9) Bh. Labh Singh Granthi Derbar Sahib
Besides these, Sant Teja Singh M.A. also participated in the discussions. The committee reconsidered the draft minutely, made necessary amendments and forwarded it to the S. G. P. C. on 1st October 1932.
The Khalsa Code of Conduct Sub-Committee Convener, Prof. Teja Singh presented the draft of Sikh Code of Conduct on 30th December 1933 in the general meeting of the S. G. P. C. After two days of heated arguments further discussions were postponed for an indefinite period because of some controversies.
After a debate on 7th January 1945 the religious advisory committee of S. G. P. C. suggested some amendments to the draft. The following members were present at this meeting.
(1)Jathedar Mohan Singh, Akal Takht Sahib, (2) Bh. Achher Singh, Head Granthi Derbar Sahib, (3) Prof. Teja Singh, Khalsa College Asr. (4) Prof. Gunga Singh, Sikh Missionary College Asr, (5) Prof. Sher Singh, M.Sc. Govt. College Ludhiana, (6) G. Lall Singh, Sikh Missionary College Asr. (7) Bawa Prem Singh Hoti, Historian, (8) G. Badul Singh, Incharge Sikh Mission Happer
Proposals and suggestions were solicited and received from the Sikhs and Sikh Societies across the Indian Sub-Continent and abroad including Malaya, Burma, Pacific Coast and Khalsa Diwan Society Stockton America. After a long drawn process of suggestion, discussions and consultations over the period of eighteen years the S. G. P. C. gave its approval to make the final suggested changes in its meeting of 3rd February 1945. There is no documented record of the final approval and enactment date of the Sikh Rehit Meryada
Defination of a Sikh- 'A woman or man who believes in one God, ten Guru Sahibs (Guru Nanak to Guru Gobind Singh sahib), Guru Granth Sahib's Gurbani, ten Guru's edification, baptism of the tenth Guru and doesn't believe in any other religion, is a Sikh.'
This Sikh's definition is not broad enough Compared to the Guru's (Granth Sahib's) definition of a Sikh. Word Sikh literally means a disciple who seeks and follows Guru’s (spiritual guide's) edification in pursuit of exalted spiritual consciousness and a virtuous human life. The universal message of Guru Granth Sahib's Gurbani, co-authored by the venerated Sikh Gurus and eminant Hindu and revered Muslim sages, transcends all conventional social, cultural and religious boundaries. Guru Nanak Sahib traveled all over Indian Sub-Continent and Middle East on his four odysseys visiting the prominent Hindu and Muslim shrines on their respective holy days to convey his universal message to all mankind. Some Sikhs with elitist and fundamentalist tendencies further narrow the definition down to a baptized Sikh.
“They (Scriptures of Guru Granth Sahib's Volumes) speak to a person of any religion or of none. They speak for the human heart and the searching mind." Pearl S. Buck Nobel Laureate, The Good Earth
The definition of a Sikh according to the Guru Granth Sahib's Gurbani,
gur siqgur kf jo isK aKfey, so Blky AuiT hir nfmu iDafvY]
jo sfis igrfis iDafey myrf hir hir, so gurisKu gurU min BfvY] gfAuVI kI vfr pMnf 305-6
One who calls himself a true-Guru's Sikh rises early to recite God's Name.
He who extols God's Name at all times, Guru loves that Guru's Sikh. Page 305-6
isK kI gur durmiq mlu ihrY] gurbcnI hir nfmu AucrY]
siqguru isK ky bMDn kftY] gur kf isK ibkfr qy hftY] rfgu gfAuVI suKmnI pMnf 286
Guru obliterates Sikh's mean mentality. Through Guru's Word (Sikh) extols God's Name.
The true Guru cuts Sikh's enslaving temptations. The Guru's Sikh desists from evils. Pag e 286
Ardaas (Sikh Litany)
The Sikh congregations recite Litany or liturgical prayer at the beginning and on completion of every Sikh religious service, individual or collective venture, auspicious or grievous occasions etc., is prescribed in the Sikh Rehit Meryada. It begins with obeisance to the Bhagauti a Hindu mythical goddess and consists of homage to the Guru incarnates, Guru Granth Sahib, remembrance of the Sikh martyrs and providential invocations. Not many preachers who lead during the Litany stick to the standard form. Some elongate it to monotony, while others supplicate to the Guru Granth Sahib instead of the God, for blessings near the end.
Considering that word Bhagauti literally means Sword, mythical Hindu destroyer Shiva, goddess Durga (who has 16 names in all, Bhawani, Parbatti, Kalka, Maha Maayee, Kaali Maayee, Chandi, Chandika, Sarswati, etc.), it seems highly inappropriate that such an ambiguous word, that can be misinterpreted or misconstrued, be used in the Sikh prayer. 1-Onkar (One God) would be most appropriate. In 1849 Some Sikh institutions did substitute Akal-Purkh, Sat-Nam or Wahay-Guru for Bhagauti but the orthodox Nihung Singhs of Akali Budda Dal refused to adopt the change.
The first stanza of this litany (Prithum Bhagauti Simir kay to subh Thaeen hoy sahaye) is taken from a Hindu mythological composition called 'Chandi Dee War' that according to some analytical minded Sikh scholars has been mischievously attributed to Guru Gobind Singh Sahib to contaminate pragmatic Sikh philosophy and true history with Avatar-ism, idolatry and mythology. The translation by Bhai Randhir Singh of the same composition is titled 'War Durga Kee' (Durga’s War-Ballad)
The translation of Chandi dee War's last stanza that glorifies Durga/Jugmaata and her cavalier feats pertaining to Hindu mythological worlds, angels and demons reads like this:-
(Durga/Bhagauti) sent Sumbh, Nisumbh (demons) to death's abode.
Inder (Hindu god), was re-called to be installed as king
The (regal) umbrella was stretched over rajah Inder's head.
Jugmaata's charisma was manifest over the fourteen worlds.
Durga wrote this composition with all the stanzas.
He who sings this composition, doesn't come back into re-incarnation cycle. 55
'Guru Granth Sahib should be ceremonially installed in the morning on a clean tidy canopied palanquin, opened, read and on completion of Sadharun (interruptible) or Akhand (non-stop) Paath (Gubani recitation)' (Granth Sahib) should be placed in resting place, safe from vandalism at night daily.
Placing Guru Granth sahib in a place safe from vandalism and desecration is understandable but the terminology used here tends to connote and inspire worship of Guru Granth Sahib. Consequently many Sikhs who misconstrue the dogma, run a fan for Guru Granth Sahib's comfort in the hot weather.
Dos and Don’ts
'(Hindu) rites of worship such as whirling lit incense and oil lamps and hymn singing in front of an Idol, bell-ringing etc. are contrary to Guru's teachings, however using incense, flowers as fragrant are not forbidden. Candles, oil/Ghee (purified butter) electric lamps etc. should be lit for light in the room.'
'No other book (or person) should be installed on Guru Granth Sahib's seat. Idolatry, rituals or rites contrary to Guru's edification shouldn't be practiced nor should any designated holydays be celebrated in a Gurdwara, however to take advantage of gatherings to preach Guru's teachings is not inappropriate.'
'To touch palanquin's legs, walls, rub nose on platforms reverently, place water under Palanquin for consecration, make or place deities in a Gurdwara, obeisance to pictures of Gurus or Sikh holy men are dogmatic (un-Sikh) rituals.'
'Nobody from any country, religion or race is disallowed admission (into a Sikh Gurdwara) to pay homage, but he or she shouldn't carry substances such as tobacco etc. that are forbidden in Sikhism.'
'There should be no distinction based on Sikh/non-Sikh, untouchable, race, ancestry high/low caste etc. while sitting in the congregation in the presence of Guru Granth Sahib.'
'For any one to sit on a cushion, seat, chair, stool, cot etc. or to sit in any other discriminative manner in the presence of Guru Granth Sahib is conceit.'
'In a congregation or in the presence of Guru Granth Sahib a Sikh should not sit bareheaded. For ladies to cover or veil their faces contravenes Guru's edification.'
Contrary to the Guru (Granth) Sahib’s edification and explicit Dos and Don’ts laid down in the Sikh Code of Conduct, either due to ignorance, blind faith dogmas or prejudices many Sikhs including spurious Sikh gurus, quasi-literate preachers and leaders continue to indulge in the forbidden un-Sikh practices and contravene all the above conventions/dogmas.
Keertun (Singing Lord's Praise)
'In a congregation only a Sikh can perform Keertun.'
Considering that the Guru Granth Sahib's Gurbani is co-authored by Sikh Gurus and venerated Hindu and Muslim sages, why the discrimination? Since Gurus' period till 1947 Bh. Merdana, Satta, Balvund, Abdulla, Bhagta, Chand, Lall and other Muslim Rababi hymn singers used to perform Keertun in Gurdwaras including in Harmandir Sahib.
'In congregation Keertun can only be of Guru Granth Sahib's Gurbani (Sikh Scriptures) or its expounding compositions by Bh. Gurdas Ji and Bh.Nund Lall Ji. To include fabricated extra lines while singing hymns in duets or regular musical compositions is conceit. Only the verse from the hymn being sung should be recited as the core line.'
afvhu isK siqgurU ky ipafrho, gfvho scI bfxI]
bfxI q gfvhu gurU kyrI, bfxIaf isir bfxI]
siqgurU ibnF, hor kcI hY bfxI] bfxI q kcI siqgurU bfJh, hor kcI bfxI]
khdy kcy, suxdy kcy, kcI afiK vKfxI] rfgu rfmklI, anMd, pMnf 920
Come, O true-Guru's dear Sikhs, sing (Guru's) true Baani.
Sing only Guru's Baani, the Baani that is superior to all other Baanis.
Baani, except true Guru's is spurious, other Baani is spurious.
Chanters are naive, listeners are gullible, and quacks preach it. Page 920
Many prominent Sikh hymn singers liberally interlace Gurbani Keertun with myths, legends and miracles that are totally inconsistent with Sikhism's philosophy. Tapes of kutchi (spurious) Baani are on the market.
The word Hokum literally means edict, command, proclamation, etc. The Sikh Gurus and other co-authors of Guru Granth Sahib used word hokum in reference to God's Will only. Not even once on 1430 pages of Guru Granth Sahib word Hokum-nama has been used in reference to the illuminating Word of the Guru. How, why and when a sermon from the Guru (Granth Sahib) came to be called Hokum-nama is any body’s guess. In all probability it is part of a sinister conspiracy to induce blind devotion cultism and occultism amongst the gullible Sikh elements.
Contrary to the philosophy of Sikhism, a lay religion that advocates the noble virtues of Humility and humbleness, the so-called Jathedars, who call themselves the servants of the Sikh Faith have started to issue their own Hokum-namas that are synonymous to Muslim Mullahs’ Fatwas and Christian excommunications and edicts that condemned dissidents to burning alive at the stakes.
'During the Sikh congregational religious service only a Sikh (man or woman) can sit in attendance to the Guru Granth Sahib. To the congregation only a Sikh can recite paath (reading of Sikh Scriptures).
If the implied definition of a Sikh is baptized Sikh only, one wonders what would Gurus, especially Guru Arjun Sahib who compiled Guru Granth Sahib's Gurbani co-authored by Sikh Gurus and Hindu and Muslim holy sages, would say about these discriminatory dogmas. The Gurbani's unique message is universal and precludes prejudicial, religious dogmas, taboos, social barriers and class distinctions. The Guru Sahib says,
suxqy punIq khqy pivq, siqguru rihaf BrpUry] rfgu rfmklI, anMd, pMnf 922
(Gurbani) Listeners are pious and chanters are consecrated who see true Guru in it (Guru’s Word). Page 922
'Sadharun- (interruptible) and Akhand (non-stop) Path (recitation) of Guru Granth Sahib's Gurbani from beginning to mundavni or raagmala can be performed according to local tradition. There is still difference of opinion so far on this matter'
Akhand Paths- non-stop recitation of Guru Granth Sahib's Bani from beginning to end, (1430 pages) were not performed during the Sikh guru's times. These were introduced during Ahmed Shah Abdali's (Durani’s) marauding and murderous invasions of India (1760s), half a century after the last Sikh guru incarnate Guru Gobind Singh Sahib departed to the celestial abode. The devout and valiant Sikhs engaged in guerilla warfare against their mortal enemy had to innovate so as to recite Guru Granth Sahib's Gurbani in the shortest time available. The continuous reciting of Gurbani took about forty-eight hours and came to be called Akhand Path that came to be traditionalized, ritualized and commercialized eventually. Both Sadhaun and Akhand Paths are commercially available via post from Harmandir Sahib even.
Gurbani Katha (Expounding of Gurbani)
'In a congregation only a Sikh can expound Gurbani.'
Those who drafted and approved the Sikh creed of conventions apparently did not consider the Sikh Gurus' concept of universality of Sikhism. Guru Arjun Dev Sahib had the foundation of Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) laid by Mian Mir, a Muslim sage. Also the Guru Granth Sahib's Gurbani itself is co-authored by the Sikh Gurus and the Muslim and the Hindu sages.
'The sole purpose of expounding Gurbani is to emphasize Guru's edification (upon listeners).'
'Expounding should only be from Baani of *ten Gurus, Bh. Gurdas, Bh. Nund Lall or other Granths recognized by the Panth or history books compatible with the Guru's edification but not from books of other religions. However corroborative quotes from some venerated man or highly educational book can be used.'
The Sikh Scholars and intelligentsia have always been skeptical of the real identity, allegiances and ulterior motives of the authors of the so-called other Granths recognized by Sikh Panth (Nation). Even the times of their publications cannot be established. The mythology, idolatry, occultism, witchcraft and wizardry contained in many of these so-called Granths are totally inconsistent with Sikhism's fundamental philosophy and Gurbani's quintessential message. The gullible Sikh majority passively accepts as gospel truth preached by many a so-called prominent Sikh Preachers, hymn singers and expounders from these un-authenticated Granths. Consequently lots of blind faith rituals, taboos, myths superstitions and prejudices have transgressed into Sikh psyche and practice of Sikhism.
Gurmut (Guru's edification)
'The life-style, livelihood and moral conduct of a Sikh should be according to Gurmut (Guru's edification)'
The Spurious Cultist Sikh Gurus and Saints have been flouting this fundamental doctrines of Sikhism and the Sikh code of conduct's dogmas with total impunity and fostering their own customized Gurmut and code of conduct on their sectarian flocks at their sectarian fiefdoms. Even in the mainstream Sikh Gurdwaras performance of un-Sikh rites are not uncommon.
'A Sikh should have faith only in ten Guru Sahibs, Sri Granth Sahib and ten Guru's Baani as saviors and spiritual mentors.'
Considering the Gurbani of Guru Granth Sahib that embodies and personifies the perpetual Sikh Guru, is co-authored by the six Sikh Gurus and number of Hindu and Muslim venerated sages, the mention of ten Gurus and their Bani tends to stratify the Guru Granth Sahib's Bani and violate Sikhism's tenet "Bani (Word) is Guru, Guru is Bani".
Amrit Sunskar (Baptismal Rite)
The text under this sub-heading tends to be ritualistic. And one of the five Baanis that are stipulated to be recited at the Amrit Sanskar, 'Kabao Baach Baynti Chaupyee' is from an incognito poet's erotic composition Chritro- Pakhyan's Treeya Chritre No. 405. Some person/s inimical to Sikhism cunningly ascribed this erotic composition to Guru Gobind Singh Sahib to beguile Sikhs. In fact in reply to a query by S. Santokh Singh of Chandigarh the S. G. P. C. wrote,
Office S. G. P. C.
Teja Singh Samundri Hall, Amritsar
Regarding your letter dated 6-7-73 the opinion of the Singh Sahibs Darbar Sahib and Jathedar Sahib Akal Takht Sahib, Amritsar is sent to you as written below,
1) 'Raaj Karayga Khalsa' that is recited at the Akal Takht Sahib and other Gurudwaras is (compatible with) Gurmut. Since, to recite Dohras is Panthak resolution, do not have misgivings about this.
2) 'Chritro-Pakhyan' that is compiled in Dasam Granth is not scriptures of Dasmesh. These are primeval Hindu mythological legends.
Signed Gurbakhsh Singh Asst. Sec.
Religious Preaching Committee
S. G. P. C. Amritsar
In view of the opinion rendered by the prominent Sikh leaders, reciting the Baynti Chaupyee from Hindu mythological legendry contravenes the very core of Sikh religiosity let alone Sikh baptismal rite, a solemn pledge that is meant to elevate a baptized Sikh to order of Khalsa.
In the vocabulary of Sikhism word Amrit means (spiritually) immortalizing nectar or elixer. And Amrit Sunskar translates to baptismal rite. The Amrit that the Guru Granth Sahib's Gurbani promotes is, extolling (singing) God's Name (Glorious Name) that every Sikh or non-Sikh man/woman can and should imbibe.
aMimRqu nfmu inDfnu hY, imil pIvhU BfeI]
ijs ismrq suKu pfaIaY, sB iqKf buJfeI] gfAuVI kI vfr m: 5 pMnf 318
(Singing) Lord's Name is Spring of Amrit, congregate and imbibe (recite) O brethren.
Recitation of that (Name) inspires serenity, all thirsts (temptation) are quenched. Page 318
ijnf gurbfxI min BfeIaf, aMimRiq Cik Cky]
hir aMimRq Bgiq BMzfr hY, gur siqgur pfsy rfmrfjy] rfgu afsf, pMnf 449
Those who Cherish Gurbani in their hearts, always imbibe Amrit (praise the Lord).
Meditation of God's Name is fountain of Amrit that is available from the Guru. Page 449
suir nr muin jn aMimRqu Kojdy su aMimRqu gur qy pfieaf]
pfieaf aMimRqu, guir ikRpf kInI scf min vsfieaf] rfmklI, pMnf 918
Amrit that holy men and monks seek, I found with the Guru.
I found Amrit through Guru's grace, and placed eternal God's Name in my heart. P. 918
ijn vizafeI qyry nfm kI, qy rqy mn mfih] nfnk aMimRqu eyku hY dUjf aMimRqu nfih]
nfnk aMimRqu mnY mfih pfeIaY gur prsfid]
iqnHI pIqf rMg isAu ijn kAu iliKaf afid] rfgu sfrMg kI vfr, pMnf 1238
O Lord, those who praise thy Name their minds are imbued (in thy Name)
Nanak, there is only one Amrit (thy Name) there is no other Amrit.
Nanak the Amrit is inside one’s mind, but is found through Guru's grace.
Only they savor (the Amrit), those who are predestined. Page 1238
The Concept and Intent of Amrit Sunskar (Sikh Baptismal Rite) initiated by Guru Gobind Singh Sahib on Vasakhi day in 1699 is to elevate a baptized Sikh to the order of khalsa, (noble warrior). However Guru Gobind Singh's concept of Amrit has apparently been misconstrued and ritualized. Detailed in great length on pages 24-27 of Sikh Rehit Meryada booklet, Amrit Sunskar reads like creed of dogmas from Hindu Simritis. Obviously the perception of Sikh leaders and preachers who are often heard saying, “imbibe Amrit and become Guru's Sikh”, implying that only a baptized Sikh is a Guru's Sikh, contradicts the Guru's concept and real purpose of Amrit Sanskar.
Since Guru Granth sahib is Composed of scriptures by the Sikh Gurus and Muslim and Hindu Sages, its universal message transcends socio-religious boundaries. Such a Guru that promotes brotherhood of man and embraces whole mankind cannot be the Guru of the baptized Sikhs only. Guru Nanak was proclaimed as 'Nanak Shah Fakir, Hindus' guru, Muslims' Pir'
The thinking that the mere baptismal ritual can transform a man into a paragon of excellence is obviously naive and erroneous. Mere Amrit Sanskar (Baptismal rite) cannot transform every one into a Khalsa overnight. One has to go through the progression of being a noble human, a Sikh and ultimately a Khalsa. A Sikh (disciple) must first imbibe Amrit advocated by the Gurbani to make himself worthy of Amrit Sanskar initiated by Guru Gobind Singh Sahib. Amrit Sanskar (Sikh baptism), the ultimate rite, should exalt a Sikh to the rank of Khalsa and a role model, epitomizing exalted spiritual awareness, excellent moral character, human virtues and social values.
Evidently too many baptized Sikhs renege on the solemn pledge and fail to live a noble life as advocated by the Gurmut (Guru’s edification) and dictated by the dogmatic Rehit Meryada. The Sikh Rehit Meryada has to be revamped to maximize success rate. There has to be greater emphasis on preparedness and determination of worthiness of a Sikh prior to Amrit Sunskar.
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